Zobo is an important healthy drink made from the dried calyces of Hibiscus sabdariffa by boiling water extraction. An equal volume of the basal extract was flavoured separately with conventional strawberry essence (Zobo-S), alligator pepper (Zobo-A), and clove (Zobo-C) and evaluated for chemical and sensory properties using established methods. The obtained range of values for mineral (4.70-578 mg/L) and vitamins (0.05-0.29 mg/100 g) were in moderate amounts with potassium being the most abundant mineral element (ranged 522-578mg/L) and highest in Zobo-A (578 mg/L). Zinc, an antiviral and important element for the body immune system was significantly (p<0.05) higher in Zobo-C (13.34 mg/L) and Zobo-A (8.33 mg/L) than Zobo-S (7.14 mg/L) making Zobo with spices a better choice drink for a preventive measure against infectious viral-diseases like COVID-19. Total titratable acidity ranged from 0.93-1.06 g/100 ml and was highest in Zobo-S (1.06g /100 ml) implying the Zobo made with spices were less acidic. Also, tannin content was improved with the spices and highest in Zobo-C (0.44 mg/100 g) while Zobo-A was the most preferred in overall acceptability. Thus, the natural spices improved the minerals, phytochemical contents and sensory acceptability of Zobo drink. This could proffer potential health benefits to the consumers and encourage the use of natural spices in the preparation of food and drinks rather than the chemical-based conventional flavour essence.
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Utilisation of Unmodified and Acid Modified Snail Shells as Low-cost Adsorbents for the Removal of Congo RedAuthors: Abimbola A. Ogundiran1, Obanla Bilikis Ololade1, Olusegun O. Ogundiran2 and *Edwin A. Ofudje3
This study focussed on the utilisation of both unmodified and acid modified snail shells as low cost adsorbents for the removal of Congo Red (CR) from aqueous solution using batch adsorption process. Different parameters such as pH, Contact time, temperature and adsorbent dose were varied. The kinetic studies using pseudo first order and pseudo second order of the adsorption were carried out. The adsorption of Congo Red (CR) was found to be dependent on the varied parameters. The optimum time for the uptake was 60 min, adsorbent dosage of 2 g and pH was found to be 2.0. The amount of CR removed (qe) rose from 2.445 to 19.230 mg/g when the contact time progressed from 5 to 60 min for unmodified snail shell and from 5.540 to 26.170 mg/g when treated snail shell was used. Pseudo-first- order model better described the kinetic of the adsorption process. The value of ΔH obtained was 42.20 kJ/mol with ΔS value of 20.30 kJ/mol) and this is an indication that the process of adsorption to be endothermic reaction. FT-IR characterization of the adsorbent before and after adsorption process revealed the probable functional groups present on the surface of the adsorbent to be –OH, C=O and C-H. Thus, snail shells can be deployed as low cost adsorbent for Congo Red removal from effluents.
Blanching Attenuates Antinutrient and Mineral Content of Basella alba and Amaranthus hybridus LeavesAuthors: Ceaser A. Moses1 *, Olumuyiwa A. Owolabi2 , Ijeoma Okolo2 , Adio. J. Akamo1, and Ofem E. Eteng1
Consumption of diets rich in vegetables and fruits protects the human body from acute and chronic diseases. This study determines the effect of blanching on some antinutritional factors and mineral content of Basella alba and Amaranthus hybridus using standard methods. The vegetables were blanched in deionized water for 5 minutes at 100oC. The phytate and oxalate contents of unblanched Basella alba were significantly (p<0.05) lowered when compared with unblanched Amaranthus hybridus. Blanching caused a significant (p<0.05) decrease in the phytate content by 22.3% and 32.8%, respectively when blanched Amaranthus hybridus and blanched Basella alba BBA were compared with their corresponding unblanched leaves. Also blanching elicited a significant (p<0.05) reduction in the oxalate level by 44.4% and 18.8%, respectively when blanched Amaranthus hybridus and blanched Basella alba BBA were matched with their unblanched counterparts. The mineral (Fe, Ca, Mg, Cu, and Zn) content was significantly (p<0.05) higher in unblanched Basella alba than unblanched Amaranthus hybridus, which decreases significantly (p<0.05) to varying extents after blanching in both vegetables. Blanching reduces the mineral content of Basella alba and Amaranthus hybridus leaves but makes them more bioavailable by reducing their phytate and oxalate. Hence, other processing techniques should be developed which reduce the antinutrient content only.
The enhancement of corrosion inhibition of galvanised steel by synergised leave extracts of Sida acuta (S.A.) and Jatropha curcas (J.C.) in 1.0 M HCl solution was investigated using the gasometric technique at 30 oC and 50 oC. Results obtained showed that complimenting plant extracts with galvanisation of steel enhanced the inhibition of Zinc in the protection of steel. Fourier transform infrared analysis confirmed the O-H functional group of alcohol at 3851 and 3436 cm-1 band. Surface morphology of the steel, synergised were studied with a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and electron dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). Analysis revealed the protection of the internal grains of the metal from dissolution into corrodents provided by the adsorbed film the extract. Inhibition efficiency improved from 57.57 % to 95.45 %, corrosion rate 0.454 cm3 /hr to 0.093 cm3 /hr for zinc-coated steel only to extract enhanced-zinc coated steel. Langmuir isotherm best explained the adsorption mechanism of extract of zinc surface. Zinc coated steel has a half-life less than 0.04531539 x 1010 minutes, while effective enhancement of Zinc coated steel with extract gave a half-life of 0.075132088 x 1010 minutes. This implies that the enhancement of galvanised (Zinc coated) steel with synergised extract improved the inhibitory characteristics of the composites over that of zinc coat alone, which corrodes in place of steel.
Husk Fibers of Wild Mature, Dwarf, Young and Hybrid Varieties of The Cocos Nucifera As A Potential Source Of Natural Antioxidant: An In Vitro Comparative StudyAuthors: Loading...
Cocos nucifera (coconut) husk fiber is the dry and fibrous external material that is processed typically to obtain the solid albumen and endosperm (coconut-water). It has been reported previously that the husks of the coconut palm are discarded massively as waste and considered as a major agro-waste of tropical countries. In this study, we investigated and compared the antioxidant activities of the n-hexane and acetone-water extracts of varieties of Cocos nucifera husk fibre - wild mature (WM), dwarf (DWF), young (YNG), and hybrid (HYB). The antioxidant activities of extracts were evaluated using a range of in vitro free radical scavenging assay models, total antioxidant capacity, and reductive ability. The results obtained were statistically analysed at a significance level of p < 0.05. The highest values for the total flavonoid content, total phenolic content, and total antioxidant capacity for the n-hexane extract was obtained from the wild mature husk fibres while the lowest was from dwarf species. The acetone-water extracts of the young husk exhibited the highest values for the total flavonoid, phenolic content, and antioxidant capacity while the hybrid species showed the lowest. At varying concentrations, the coconut varieties and extracts displayed different 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals scavenging activities. All varieties displayed reducing potential, although with varying efficacy. Also, it was observed that the IC50 for the nitric oxide free radical scavenging activity of the n-hexane extracts and acetone-water extract were similar in the order of HYB > DWF > WM > YNG.
Costus spicatus, an herbaceous plant, parts- leaves, rhizome, stem and root are used locally because of its medicinal properties. This study was carried out to compare the phyto- constituents of the Costus spicatus leaf and rhizome. The secondary metabolites of Costus spicatusleaf and rhizomewere determined qualitatively via standard phytochemicalscreening methods.Thechemicalcompositions of the aqueousextract ofCostusspicatusleaf and rhizome were analyzed using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry and UV-Visible Spectrophotometer. The qualitative phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of Carbohydrate, Alkaloids, Saponins, Terpenoids, Phenols and Protein were detected in the aqueous rhizome extract while Carbohydrate, Alkaloids, Flavonoids and Proteins were detected in the leaf extract. The UV-yis scan of the aqueous rhizome and leaf extracts revealed the varying absorbance of the leaf and rhizome extract at different wavelengths and the spectrum shows the highest peaks at 200-214 nm and 220-227 nm respectively indicating the presence of organic chromophores. The GC-MS analysis of aqueous extract of Costus spicatus rhizome revealed the presence of Hexadecanoic acid, methyl ester (11.34%) and 10,13-Octadecadienoic acid, methylester (10.22%) for the leaf extract as the compound with the highest peaks. These results reveal that the rhizome extract contains more active organic compounds and therefore can be further explored in phytomedicinal researches.
Examination of Factors Determining Choice of Housing Tenure in Old Bodija, Ibadan, Oyo State, NigeriaAuthors: Loading...
Housing tenure is the financial arrangement under which the household occupies all or part of a housing unit. Housing affordability from time immemorial has been a major concern in developed and developing world which is hinged on man's welfare and productivity. This study investigates the factors that determine the choice of housing tenure in Old Bodija Ibadan, Oyo state, Nigeria. Questionnaire was developed based on variables such as types of residential properties, housing tenure and factors determining types of housing tenure. Questionnaire was administered to 178 respondents within 11streets consisting of residential properties in the studied area. 150 questionnaire were retrieved representing 84%. Descriptive and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) techniques were applied to define the preference factors that determine the choice of housing tenure in the studied area. The result through ANOVA technique revealed that the educational background of the occupiers, capacity of rent demanded, security of the environment and the nature of the location are the preference factors that determine the choice of housing tenure in the studied area. Personal observation and interview made with the respondents confirmed that the land price, housing satisfaction and housing preference are the most significant factors. The study recommends that housing need should be met and enhanced by promoting security, government should focus on regularization schemes, provide incentives to families to invest in their homes and communities and also provide locations with infrastructures vis a vis health care services and schools in the study area.
In the education sector, constructing a personalized timetable is an important aspect that should be given uppermost priorities when it comes to academic planning and implementation. Basically, in most schools, the timetable is done to encompass all courses, segregation only comes in departmentally, by faculty or by programs being studied by the students involved. This could be cumbersome especially for schools with numerous programs, departments or faculties as students and faculty members have to glance through such complex timetables before they are able to map out theirs. This could lead to resource wastage in terms of time, misinterpretation by students involved, clashing of courses being taken by students, poor utilization of available venues amongst other issues. In other to proffer solutions to some of the identified problems, a personalized and user-centric timetable system was designed for the College of Basic and Applied Sciences (CBAS), Mountain Top University, Ogun State, Nigeria. System design was specified using unified modeling language (UML) diagrams such as use-case, sequence and activity diagrams. The system was implemented using mobile application development technologies. The android based timetable system presented an administrative module who could schedule lecture periods, specify time amongst other constraints and overall management of course scheduling based on courses registered for by the students. Evaluation of the system was done using Post Study System Usability Questionnaire (PSSUQ) version 3 measuring tool and analysed using descriptive statistics with SPSS version 21. One hundred and twenty five (125) participants were chosen randomly and purposefully for the study. Results of analysis gave the perceived satisfaction score as 2.56, system usefulness with 1.98, information quality with a mean score of 2.72 while interface quality performed the lowest with a mean score of 3.19 since in PSSUQ analysis, the higher the mean score, the poorer the performance. The timetable system was basically designed to reduce the problem of accessibility and better convenience especially on the part of the students. Future works would also consider a fully automated system with the use of scheduling algorithms and the integration of examination and invigilation scheduling in the same system.
In this paper, the soil temperature dynamics in south-western Nigeria is investigated using nonlinear time series analysis approach. The 5-mins interval soil temperature data observed continuously over a period of 1 year (from January to December, 2012) were analysed to investigate the existence of chaos. We employed the method of false nearest neighbour carefully interlaced with the average mutual information method to reconstruct the original attractor of the soil temperature's evolution process. The Lyapunov exponent, in addition to the strange attractor of the process, was also employed to identify chaos in the process. Numerical simulations were performed to show the validity of our approach. Tabular and graphical are presented. The results of the computation show the existence of chaos in the soil temperature.
Application layer Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attacks are becoming increasingly prevalent on Internet based web services. Severe HTTP GET flood attacks are often launched by attackers, wherein web servers become overwhelmed with superfluous GET requests. This exhausts the processing and connectivity resources of the servers, hence resulting in service failures. As availability of services is key to online service providers, this work presents a behavioral based detection system named 'DDoSDetect' for HTTP GET flood attacks. In DDoSDetect, a traffic monitor tracks incoming GET requests sent to the server. Four distinct behavioral features such as the rate of requests, time interval between successive requests, session rate and the frequency of requests on a web page, are employed to analyze user's behaviors. A detection unit driven by three phases: LRP (Legitimate Request Phase), IRP (Illegitimate Request Phase) and SVM-RC (Support Vector Machine-Request Classifier) is designed to intelligently classify incoming GET requests. Illegitimate GET requests are dropped while legitimate requests are forwarded to the web server. DDoSDetect is implemented and results obtained from evaluation processes signify the effectiveness of the system towards the mitigation of HTTP GET flood attacks. Also, the system is real time and capable of handling sophisticated attacks.
Classification Model for The Survival of Patients with Hepatitis C Disease Using Decision Trees AlgorithmAuthors: Loading...
Hepatitis C is an infectious disease caused by the hepatitis C virus and it primarily affects the liver. Hepatitis C often leads to liver disease and occasionally cirrhosis while in some cases, those with cirrhosis will develop complications such as liver failure. This study was aimed at developing a classification model for the classification of the survival of patients living with hepatitis C. The study collected data containing 19 attributes and 155 records from an online repository created by UCI machine learning repository following which C4.5 decision trees algorithm was adopted for developing the classification model. The results of the study showed that the decision tree is suitable for developing the classification model because of its structural representation of the classification of the survival of Hepatitis C disease. The evaluation of the model simulation process showed that the best performance using the percentage split was achieved using 90 percent for training and 10 percent for testing with an accuracy of 86.67% while using the k-fold cross validation was achieved using 10-fold with an accuracy of 83.87%. Overall, the best performance was achieved using 90 percent of the dataset for training and 10 percent for testing owing for an accuracy of 86.67%. The results also showed that a number of variables were extracted from the initially identified variables and were deemed more relevant for the classification of survival. The study concluded that the If-Then rules which were extracted from the decision tree proved effective in providing decision-support to experts due to its simplicity in interpretation thus mitigating deaths associated with hepatitis C disease.
We hereby present an advanced road vehicle safety device. The device tackles the problem of loss of lives, arising from late medical attention to care for accident victims after an accident as a solution that enables fast response to persons involved in ghastly vehicle accidents. It uses ultrasonic sensor to detect the changes in the body of the vehicle due to a mechanical impact from an accident and sends a signal to the microcontroller which is connected to a buzzer. The buzzer in response to the signal triggers an alarm and simultaneously a Short Message Service (SMS) and recorded phone call are sent to registered contacts in the device. Arduino ATMega328P microcontroller monitors and activates the system when there is impact detected by the ultrasonic sensor. Then the buzzer outputs the warning sound to alert while the Global System for Mobile communication (GSM) module sends SMS alert and places a call when there is significant impact on the vehicle. This device senses any Izod Impact causing up to 10cm penetration at the impact zone of the vehicle. The system has a response time of 0-3 seconds for activation of the buzzer and 5-10 seconds for the GSM module.
One of the biggest problems nowadays for network operators are recurring call drops. The number of subscribers has tremendously increased over the years; the quality of service (Call Drop Rate) has become an issue to consider as many subscribers are not satisfied with the services rendered. There are various causes of call drop in telecommunications such as Electromagnetic causes, Irregular user behavior, abnormal network response and others. Over 50% of call drops are caused by electromagnetic strength fluctuations such as power attenuation, deep fading and so on. In this paper vibrational resonance (VR) is proposed as a strategy towards solving the aspect of call drops caused by power attenuation. Attenuated amplitude modulated (AM) signal, with frequency ‘
The synergistic effect of combining both Sida acuta (SA) and Jatropha curcas (JC) leaf extracts on steel in 1.0 M HCl solution was investigated using gasometric and conventional o o weight loss technique at 30 C and 50 C. Surface microscture of the steel with the mixed extract werestudied through Scanning electron microscope(SEM) and Electron dispersive X- ray spectroscopy (EDX) which revealed how the inhibitor hindered the attack of acid on the microstructures thereby preventing its dissolution into the corrodent. The presence of C=O -1 functional band at 1094 cm of ester was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared analysis. o o Synergism Parameter(S1) was at optimum at 2.09 and 2.65 at 30 C and 50 C respectively on steel pipe. This implies that synergism is favoured with increasein temperature. S1 greater than 1 confirmed that the mixture of the two plants produced synergised inhibitive effect. The inhibitory power increases with increase in extract concentration. Inhibition Efficiency -3 rangesfrom 60 % to 85 % with increasein extractconcentration of SAalonefrom 0.1 gdm to -3 o 1.0 gdm . When synergisedwith JC, itrangesfrom 77 % to 93 % for SA at 30 C forthesame concentration increase. Results obtained showed that thesynergeticeffects of the plantsextract complimented carbon constituent of the steel to enhanced the corrosion inhibition potential synergized plantextracts overunsynergized onthe steel.
The penetrating influence of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in education has over the last few decades revolutionized education by bringing some drastic changes to the methods of teaching and learning. Nevertheless, a number of challenges are still imminent for the African countries especially Nigeria and some other developing countries because very many of the institutions are still using the traditional classroom method of lecture delivery where course materials are given by the lecturer at the instance of time in a particular location. This situation more often than not, imposes a number of constraints such as time and place on both the instructor and the student, hence their inconsistencies in the pedagogy and learning style due to repetitive nature of teaching/learning. To this end therefore, this paper presents a conceptual approach to develop a virtual classroom system to enhance learning on campus, which we referred to as learning varsity in this work. The system was developed using PHP and MySQL as server- side programming and database respectively. The web-based virtual classroom provides a web enabled interactive learning environment in making education accessible and available to students by providing educational services.
Nutritional Evaluation of Extruded Complementary Diet from Quality Protein Maize and Soybean Protein Concentrate Using In-Vivo BioassaysAuthors: Loading...
Complementary meals were formulated from quality protein maize, soybean protein concentrate and cassava starch in the ratio 72:18.94:9.06 respectively. The flour blend was extruded to give three meals by varying three extrusion conditions (Temperature, moisture content and screw speed). The formulated diet had protein content values ranging from 20.09% in one of the extruded samples to 22.09% (dry weight basis) in the unextruded sample. The formulated meal (extruded and unextruded) and control diets were fed to rats for 28 days and the effects on body weight, organ weight, clinical signs, histopathology, haematology, and serum biochemical parameters were evaluated. There was no significant difference in the weight of the liver, kidney, pancreas, spleen, stomach and heart of the rats fed the three extruded samples and the casein diet at p ≤ 0.05. High protein Efficiency Ratio was recorded for the extruded meals (ranging from 2.24 to 2.45). There was significant difference at p ≤ 0.05 between the organ weights of the extruded meal and the unextruded meals. The rats fed the basal diet had the lowest (24%) Packed Cell Volume value while the values recorded for the extruded formulated meals were comparable to that recorded for the casein diet. Portal congestion and shrunken hepatocytes were however noticed in the liver of the rats fed the unextruded and basal diets. Extrusion
cooking had significant effects on the biological response of the rats to the formulated diet.